Thursday, April 29, 2010

O P Bhatnagar - A Poet of Political Awakening

O P Bhatnagar is among the most leading voices of Indian English poetry whose collections Thought Poems (1976), Feeling Fossils (1977), Angels of Retreat (undated), The Audible Landscape, Oneric Visions, Shadows in Floodlight (1984) and Cooling Flames of Darkness (2001) bespeak of political consciousness of the poet. As it's clear cut fact that Indian English poetry can never stand back from the socio-political atmosphere of India and poets who don't write under a single formula but rather embark on a dialogue between 'man and man' so Bhatnagar too deals with a number of issues of our society and politics. Dr. A.N. Dwivedi comments:

"Bhatnagar's poetry comprehends a great variety of themes which directly focus on the long ness of his experience and the solemnity of his involvement in the affairs of life." (CIE217)

Bhatnagar's tackling of political idea is more firm and larger than any other Indian English poet for he has touched almost all the aspects of political scenario. Dr.V.K.Singh observes:

"We find in Bhatnagar a frank analysis of the facts of contemporary life. Bhatnagar descants upon myriad aspects of political life as existing currently. No salient feature escapes his keenly discerning eye. Bhatnagar rips open the bosom of a lot of political riddles. He mirrors before us what is what of all political problems." (152)

Themes like election, bribery, corruption, criminalization of politics, rampant bribery among the leaders degrading character of national leaders, division of society by communalism, castism, linguism, and regionalism etc and the utter loss of values in politics are touched by the poet in a remarkably sensitive and superbly sarcastic manner which is nonetheless not being surpassed by any poet of Indian English Poetry. His assertion that 'Indian Poetry in English has to be Indian' cannot be overlooked if we aspire to promote Indian Literature. Merely copying and coping with the English and English Literature is insufficient because Indian sensibility is not suffering with the penury of thoughts, emotions and sensibility and because it has its foundation vitality and voice of potentiality. Dr. R.C. Sharma is right when he says:

"The reason why Bhatnagar advocates making Indian Poetry in English is beset with conflicts and concerns; and these conflicts and concerns are basically Indian. Bhatnagar is conscious of the milieu in which the Indian poet in English lives just like of the duty which the Indian poet in English has to perform."(79)

O.P.Bhatnagar has dealt with a number of themes like social consciousness, political awareness, love, nature, philosophy and Indianness. due to Dr. A. N. Dwivedi:

Bhatnagar's poetry comprehends a great variety of themes, which directly focus on the largeness of his experienceand the solemnityof his involvement in the affairs of his life. (CIE,217)

In this manner Bhatnagar understands the tempo and temperature of his times and accordingly orchestrates his poetry. Bhatnagar's dealing with the idea of politics is myriad and real. The various social problems that agitate the conscience of man are the subjects of his poetry and he tries to throw a great deal of light on all of them. S.C.Bose observes:

"The poetry of O.P.Bhatnagar which has indeed a lot of dimensions is also important as poetry of political consciousness." (V. V., 29)

The frank analysis of the fact of contemporary life, and the picturesque delineation make his poetry vibrant and appealing. due to Bhatnagar:

"Most of the vital areas of the life today are governed by the quality of political life and atmosphere are creating and living. Politics today has replaced our religious mode of life. We are fast becoming interested with a kind of nationalism that may define our role and responsibilities in the making of the destiny of our Nation in future." (RC, 'Introduction', 8)

due to Bhatnagar:

Indian poetry in English ought to primarily concern to social and political life of the folks of India and it, 'have to democratize its concerns and relations to society and make it a source of shared have to throw light on the degeneration and corruption corroding identities. It have to speak of the total lose of moral values, the gloom and the frustrations pervading the National scene." (RC, 'Introduction'9)

Poetry for Bhatnagar is a constant search and effort to symbolize for a better socio-political life .to him, it's 'a self conscious craft shaped and reshaped by constant practice-refined and retouched by manner of the vision. Like life itself, it's the work of a gardener who after removing all weeds cultivates it to final growth and flowering. As such there is no influence of any particular school of thought on his poetry. it's completely his own- a personal experiment inspired by surroundings, ages, times and most especially by human predicament.

The first collection of Bhatnagar Thought Poems (1976) has good deal of poems of political consciousness. The poems rich in thought content lack in emotion like that of romantic poets but the first poem of the collection finds out the process of poetic creation. Bhatnagar writes:

"Poetry's meaning

Like a deity in enshrined

Words upon words, the edifice build." (T.P, 5)

Bhatnagar throws ample light on the question concerning God who cannot be resolved out in going round the temple by the worshipper. God is a meaning and deity enshrined in words of poem, the artist alone can expound and seek Him out:

"We may go round and round the temple

nevertheless never be around God.

We may go round and rand an theme

nevertheless never be around a thought." (ibid. 5)

In among his poems, he predicts the future as gloomy as the present:

"The future looks faded

Like the blossoms of cacti after dawn

The saints from bars, brothels and night clubs

Tasting of casinos and underworld

Turn morals, values and virtues to ice-cream

Licked by fun loving childness in cones." (T.P, 10)

In the poem 'The new Scale' Bhatnagar tries to strike balance between one man's meat is additional man's poison. The poet finds the dictum worn out in the modern context 'a simple and honest man measures life in value spoons as he finds dishonesty to be the meanest manner of life'. The stark reality of life can be seen as:

"A simple, honest man

In a worn out mode

May nonetheless himself find

Measuring life in value spoons

Bribery, corruption and forgery

For him, a bitter poison be." (T.P., 12)

Bhatnagar wishes to opine that the one's who amass wealth are the little concern with the interest with their fellow beings, nor do they feel any immorality in acting quite contrary to the code of conduct. In additional poem 'A Woe of Wonder', Bhatnagar expresses our sentiments and helpless attitude. The poet regrets the diversity, disintegration that our country possesses today. The emphasis of the poet is nothing but Nationality, one sentiment and one attitude. This theme is penned by the poet as:

"Our is a multiheaded country

Looking in no particular direction

Trimurti is an all inclusive vision

From here to eternity risen

Telling the tale of our frivolity." (T.P., 14)

Similarly in the poem 'The Bonds of Country Care' the poet comments on the loyalty and patriotism of those Indians who have been amassing vanity, wealth and arrogance by their services to the countries to which they have immigrated. These so known as loyal citizens and tireless patriots visit India for their own cause:

"Loyal citizens proud of patriots

Never forget the care of their country

And fly back home from time to time

Either to choose a bride like a prince

Or buy of ones country a jewel of a land

Placing their kingdom in a safety of bands

Sealed with the loyal assurance with a wink

That although they do not belong to this country

It sure belongs to their empire." (T. P., 15)

The second collection Feeling Fossils has also some poems of political interest. Bhatnagar in spite of treating the politics in an indirect way hardly fails to pin point very uncommon phenomena that somehow remain hidden from the eye of even those who have specialized in the game of politics. 'Crossing The Bar' is realistic poem that lashes on the modern politicians. His comment on the modern politicians is worth quoting:

"Morals as dense

As thick forests

Let no light in;

The game is weird

Hunting loyalties

For romance." (F.F, 16)

additional notable poem 'The No Man's Land' expresses the theme that freedom has imparted no racial alteration in the life of the folks who are nonetheless living the dark dungeon of poverty, illiteracy and justice. The movement of liberation was raised by the masses but only few privileged men came forward to control. And when the efforts and sacrifices of the masses resulted success those privileged few captured thrown of the country and continued ruling over the nation under the garb of democracy. So the poet feels right:

"Before the British came

The land was not ours:

After they left,

It was not ours too

The land belongs

To those who rule;

The other people merely inherit

The no man's land." (F.F., 19)

The third collection Angles of Retreat has a lot of thought provoking poems in which the poet explores the meaning of time as is evaluated from the events emerging from the cave of materialism wedded to hypocrisy. The tone of the poet in this collection is satiric and ironical. In the poem 'History is A Sorry go round' the poet wishes to propound that the historians often ignore the importance of the folks at large and they tend to magnify the deeds of a couple of privileged men. The political sycophants have no other manner of reaching the pages of History. The historians think that their labor in recording titles and tortures serve the cause of National unity and security and they're helped by political sycophants:

"Political sycophants are their aides

On whose beguiling predictions

They fire eat and perform

The Japanese fire-walk shows

To dazzle the already dazed." (A.R, 40)

even so political leaders and sycophants forget that the tyrants and blood suckers must face a fall:

"Too a lot suppression and a lot politicking

Ferments its own defeat

Forcing the masses to forge

In the smithy of their conscience

The invisible weapons of their conscience

The invisible weapons of their fall

Crowning shame on the foreheads of tyrants

And nailing bitter truths

On the crossroads times." (A.R.41)

'Beggars can Be Choosers' is a remarkable poem in which the poet extends his sympathy for the poor, homeless deceased and propounds that begging is not an evil as those that are harbored by shallow careerists, dare devil smugglers and cheating blackmarketeers. The beggars are away from the ailment of tension, alienation and loss of identity and the poet concludes:

"All my humanitarian approach

Seemed a snarl to me

And my reformist fervor a celluloid zeal

Little realizing that beggars also can be choosers

And little less apprehending

The manner we are able to misread one additional

To keep our irrational forms going

That in endless deceit

End the shapes of our destiny." (A.R, 43)

Similarly, in additional poem 'Thoughts on A Election Day' is additional poem of political consciousness in which the poet ridicules and paints a very vivid and realistic picture of ignorant voters and literate officials as follows:

"The ignorant voters in their routine

Queue up day-dreaming

And in a passion of a second

Get rid of their oscitant indecision

Stamping symbols for men.

With a handful of literates

Sealing illiterate favours in steel boxes

And recording the proud percentage of poll

A quite reigns over the polling booths

Like mourners retired from their obsequies." (A.R., 46)

The hope for new political miracles after such democratic phenomena in every five year is finely portrayed by the poet who wishes to say that Democracy is nothing but the ugly face oppression and injustice.

The fourth collection of verse Oneric Visions indirectly muses over the themes of politics wherein a lot of fragments related to political consciousness are scattered in the volume. for instance in the poem 'If One Starts Asking Questions like Hamlet' the poet gives a reference to politics:

"The fanatic erect marbles statues

Of their transient heroes

On the evanescent route of times-

Some whispering revolution

other people proclaiming peace-

Leaving the common man

To elbow sun with sun-shades." (O.V. 25)

In 'Who is Afraid of Fear' the poet's theme about the magnitude of evils that tell about the nature of politics is expressed by the poet:

"Up rise the ghost of smugglers

Hoarders, hooligans and holy-idlers

In a saucy denial of their treason

And evoke the deformed apparitions

Of the men who wished to rule

Or the man who just couldn't be men

And like a Shikhandi shielded

The shadow of sin

Branding sun complain of gout

Bent with an aging dream

Wiping morals like beauty

Scrapped by actors with cold cream." (O.V., 35)

The Gandhian concept of non-violence is very well expressed in the poem 'Non-Niolence and Violence'. Like Gandhi, Bhatnagar feels that even non-violence has its limits:

"If one strikes you once

I invite him to do it again:

If one takes off your shirt

Offer him to remove whatever remains." (O.V., 35)

But it's not practically non-violence but a dearth of wisdom rather the poet suggests:

"With ideals folded like umbrella

One may keep them for a rainy day

And indulge in violence for fun

But the wrinkled dialectic of violence

Is a bit too monotonous

Putting the ikebana of horror

Unrelieved and unpossessed

Of any sense of humour

Worth the while." (O.V., 43)

The collection Shadows in Floodlight has a lot of poems of depth and observation in which the poet becomes philosophical just like analytical. In the poem 'Of Poverty, Revolutions and Dreams' the poet upholds rightly:

We cannot value poetry than its contents

Like vice more than its purity

And frustrations behave a wfore:

For poetry in itself is a revolution

Undreamt of in dreamt undreams." (S.F., 17)

But in additional poem 'The Living Scene' the poet presents the picture of modern India saying:

"The living scene in my country

Is worth only for the granite eyes

Insensitive and resilient

For our visions to unfold." (SF,20)

And he adds:

"it is a scene where utopia and epic

Are merging into a palpable chaos

Adventure overrunning freedom

Gangsterism whipping justice,

Politics keeping dignity captive

Inaction to avoid thought." (ibid)

The sixth collection The Audible Landscape has ample poems related to political consciousness in which the poet vocalizes and reflects the present scenario of the Nation and its folks. for instance, the first poem reflects the slavish mentality of the folks who are ready to suffer without making a sigh. The Nation has become coward and the malady is beyond all treatment. The poet says:

"The self enslaving slaves are ruled

By glad ghosts." (AL, 9)

And he adds:

"When slavery is loved as a rhetoric to survive

Rendering both Cervants and Dostoyevsky futile

Conceits of cowards need no therapist

Nor freedom a Marx or a Gandhi to revive."(p.9)

He mirrors our predicament saying:

"A prisoner is more free than those

Who have no freedom even to dream." (ibid)

Almost the identical tone is continued in the next poem 'The Walls of Prison house Remain'. Bhatnagar writes:

"We've broken the chains of slavery

The walls of prisonhouse remain." (AL, 10)

The following extract from the poem mirrors the plight of the Indians:

"Our despair is not because

There is less revolution

But little alteration."(ibid)


"Even now we look for leaders to follow

God to send us his grace:

We're afraid of speaking the truth

And resisting whatever is unjust

Foul and corrupt in our bones."(ibid)

What a fun it has that we have taken phrases for reality forgetting all resistance and protest. Bhatnagar says:

"Long caged in slavery

We've become like circus lions

Incapable of freedom in emotions

Became our own prisonwalls." (.A.L. p.11)

The third poem in the volume 'Can Facts Be Destroyed By Ideas, highlights the reality which cannot be destroyed by ideas the so known as cat politics cannot play the game of hide and seek for a long time. The poet writes:

"Yesterday they were the dreams of tomorrow

Today they're the memories of past-

Villages to replace heaven:

The unsheltered resting in villas:

Morals to be as firm as mountains:

With he hungry feeding at the Taj-

All this is history now of politics

That enrich country with poverty such long." (AL, 12)

The poet concludes saying:

"Even poets are now weary of dreams

Readt like Caligula to depart

Let struggle revive to make up for the loss

In art turn material hostile to art."(ibid)

In this collection there are number of poems like 'nonetheless Questions', 'The New Morality', 'The Second advent', 'On Seeing Rashtrapati Bhavan', 'Displacement More Spacious', 'That Space' and 'The Second Conversion' in which the poet points out the foils and foibles of our character and presents the snapshot of the suffering humanity and reveling a naked of modern life Bhatnagar tries to reform the present scenario and motivates us to fight against injustice and humiliation.

The last collection Cooling Flames of Darkness (2001) has also a number of poems of political interest in which the poem 'The Janus Faced Politician' is remarkable. The poet starts saying:

"Who says it takes yellow sweat and suffering

To become a leader these fruitful days!

it is now faience with all imperfections

To charm the innocent unequals

With more charming handicaps

manner laying day-dreams by faldage

With deceptive drawings of fain hopes.( CFD, 17)

The farcical face of Indian politics and the imposters known as politicians are sketched by the poet so well. Bhatnagar urges us:

"So, watch a hardcore bandit

A seasoned-green kidnapper

A smart murderer: a high-fi smuggler

A high moving scamster

Talk glib on television

Or dictate his undercover turns

To the twice beleaguered folks

Voting him to power with little choice

Democracy forcing its manner to a farce. (CFD, 18)

The poem 'Ravaged Children of The Civilized Times' shows almost all the outer conflicts in the world where the folks of the modern times are more indulged in cancerous violence, sins and crimes rather being 'in the line of the best selling fiction:/ media blow-up on sight on internet'. Politicians are like Cassius and Shakuni who are fixing distant designs of personal power-park and are 'perambulating their nebulous dreams.' due to him, politicians will never let the world alteration in its earlier glory. He says:

"We're ravaged of civilized times-

Our limping spirits have their own vexed truth:

Philosophers, physiologists or politicians aside

All fires end- find their glory in ashes:

And waters emptying themselves out

Through all the mountain gashes. And

Howsoever a lot innocence may stand the test

By fire and water:

Violence will never lost its radiance

The woes of innocence their cold surrender.

May be the return to the tenderness of heart

Lies through bestiality, faxed all over the world

The text in its authenticity unchanged." (CFD,14)

Likewise, in 'The Primitives of The Age', the poet imagines the more ghasty mishappenings and the overgrowth of the ghost of dirty politics:

"Come one, come all

Come hyenas or wolves

The inlaid roots will naturally force

Their trampled power to fresh shoots

And survive the grizzly undergrowth

In a new grace of their old salons

Tesing the civilized in their

a lot biting teeth." (CFD,16)

In 'Looking At My Solitude' the poet tries to unburden himself from the agonies of time but finds solace nowhere and says:

"For the agony of it

Philosophy, music or poetry

May only half-persuade the fine taste

To savour the taste of solitude

In good taste and trust:

For, the bitter at best can turn

Only less bitten not sweeter nonetheless." (CFD, 36)

Thus, from the above narration it's revealed that Bhatnagar's poetry is free from all the movements of Rightist or Leftist nor it has any relation with any particular school of thought or ideology rather to a depiction of reality crystal-clearly and narration of truth in pictorial and vividly. The Religion of Bhatnagar's poetry is love and peace. His poetic creed is in essence human and kind. He seems to be a true advocate of simplicity when he says:

"Poetry at its best is a clear and a simplified version of the complex and the confused for there is nothing more transcidental beyond the creative simplicity of poetry. Poetry wins not by its snobbishness but by its simplicity. Simple poetry is the poetry of togetherness. If more Indian folks are to read poetry in English then it have to get common and available and related to the living human concerns of the times than mere to words, animals, damsels and sex." (FD, 122)

so, we are able to say that Bhatnagar has treated the politics as metaphor in his poetry and his poetry has established itself as the clarion call of awakening in the present milieu of political darkness.


oA.N. Dwevedi (ed.), Contemporary Indo English Verse. Bareilly: Prakash Book Depot.1998.

oV. K. Singh. 'Silhouttes from Political & Economic Life' The Poetry of O. P. Bhatnagar- A critical Evaluation. Under the supervision of Dr. T. K. Ramchandran, Submitted to Rohilkhand University, Bareilly,1992

oR.C. Sharma & Dolly Oswal, 'O. P. Bhatnagar's Treatment of Politics', Agra University Journal of Research., pt. 1, Jan.1982

oS. C. Bose, Vision & Voice. Vol.2, Ed. G. P. Baghmar, Nagpur; Vishwa Bharti Publications. (Abbreviated as V. V.)

oO. P. Bhatnagar(ed,) Rising Columns-Some Indian Poets in English.Amravati; Kala Prakashan.

o------------------------------Thought Poems.Aligarh: Skylark Publications. 1976,(Abbreviated as TP in the text)

o------------------------------Feeling Fossils .New Delhi: Samkaleen Prakashan., (Abbreviated as FF in the text)

o---------------------------Angles of Retreat .New Delhi: Samkaleen Prakashan., (Abbreviated as AR in the text)

o----------------------------Oneric Visions. Jaipur: Rachna Prakashan., (Abbreviated as OV in the text)

o-----------------------------Shadows in Floodlights. Aligarh: Skylark Publications.(Abbreviated as SF in the text)

o------------------------------Audible Landscape. Aligarh: Skylark Publications.(Abbreviated as AL in the text)

o---------------------------Cooling Flames of Darkness. New Delhi: Samkaleen Prakashan.,2001 (Abbreviated as CFD in the text)

o---------------------------Future Directions- Indian Poetry in English Jaipur: Rachna Prakashan, (Abbreviated as FD in the text)

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